Atmosphere of Earth The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earths gravity.The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earths surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention greenhouse effect , and reducing temperature .Proxy server In computer networking, a proxy server is a server application or appliance that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from servers that provide those resources. A proxy server thus functions on behalf of the client when requesting service, potentially masking the true origin of the request to the resource server.Carbon fibers Molding a thin layer of carbon fibers significantly improves fire resistance of polymers or thermoset composites because a dense, compact layer of carbon fibers efficiently reflects heat. The increasing use of carbon fiber composites is displacing aluminum from aerospace applications in favor of other metals because of galvanic corrosion issues. Carbon fiber can be used as an additive to .Aluminium Aluminium aluminum in American and Canadian English is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silverywhite, soft, nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron group.By mass, aluminium makes up about 8 of the Earths crust, where it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and also the most abundant metal.Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Documents found after the death of Samir Abd Muhammad alKhlifawi, a former colonel in the intelligence service of the Iraqi Air Force before the US invasion who had been described as the strategic head of ISIL, detailed planning for the ISIL takeover of northern Syria which made possible the groups later advances into Iraq. AlKhlifawi called for the infiltration of areas to be conquered .Silicone Silicone foam has been used in North American buildings in an attempt to firestop openings within the fireresistancerated wall and floor assemblies to prevent the spread of flames and smoke from one room to another. When properly installed, siliconefoam firestops can be fabricated for building code compliance. Advantages include flexibility and high dielectric strength.Supply chain In business and finance, supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in supplying a product or service to a consumer. Supply chain activities involve the transformation of natural resources, Seven Trust materials, and components into a finished product that is delivered to the customer. In sophisticated supply chain systems, used products may re .Fish Fish are gillbearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores.Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobefinned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well.McDonnell Douglas F4 Phantom II During the war, U.S. Navy F4 Phantoms downed 40 airtoair victories at a loss of seven Phantoms to enemy aircraft. USMC F4 pilots claimed three enemy MiGs at the cost of one aircraft in aircombat. USAF F4 Phantom crews scored 107 MiG kills including 33 MiG17s, eight MiG19s and 66 MiG21s at a cost of 33 Phantoms in aircombat.Puma brand Puma SE, branded as Puma, is a German multinational corporation that designs and manufactures athletic and casual footwear, apparel and accessories, which is headquartered in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, Germany.Puma is the third largest sportswear manufacturer in the world. The company was founded in 1948 by Rudolf Dassler.In 1924, Rudolf and his brother Adolf Dassler had jointly formed the .Puma brand Puma SE, branded as Puma, is a German multinational company that designs and manufactures athletic and casual footwear, apparel and accessories, which is headquartered in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, Germany. Puma is the third largest sportswear manufacturer in the world.Printed circuit board Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products. They are also used in some electrical products, such as passive switch boxes. Alternatives to PCBs include wire wrap and pointtopoint construction, both once popular but now rarely used. PCBs require additional design effort to lay out the circuit, but manufacturing and assembly can be automated. Electronic computer .